Sewage Treatment(18.污水处理)

    Assoonasearlypeoplesestablishedsettlementtheyhadtheproblemofgettingridofsewage——theirorganicwastesand,sometimes,thoseofdomesticanimals.Naturedisposesofsurplusorganicmaterialinfourprincipalwaysbydilution,oxidation,putrefaction,andfiltration.Earlypeoplesreliedonthesenaturalprocessesandgenerallydump......查看详细>>

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Water Supply(17.供水工程)

    Themoreprosperousmanbecomes,themorewaterheuses.In1980sindevelopingcountries(theThirdWorld),somecommunitiesmanagewithanaverageof2.5gallons(12liters)ofwaterperpersonperday.InmostEuropeancitiesthedailydomesticconsumptionpercapitaofthepopulationisnearer33gallons(150liters).Inthemostprosperousurbanareasof......查看详细>>

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Building Dams(16.修筑大坝)

    Controlofhislife-sustainingwatersupplyhasalwaysbeenoneofman’sprimaryconcerns.For5,000years,damshavebeeninstrumentalinthiscontrol,beingusedtoavertfloods,divertrivers,storewater,andirrigateland.Manyoftoday’sconstructionsfulfillthesesameage-oldfunctions;damsarestillusedforagriculturalirrigationanddo......查看详细>>

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Canal Construction(15.运河建设)

    ModerncanalprovideimportanttransporthighwaysthroughoutEuropeand,toalesserextent,NorthAmerica.TheriversRhineandMosellefeedandxtensivecanalsysteminGermanythathasconnectionstotheDutch,Belgian,andFrenchnetworks.AnewmajorwaterwayiscompletedtoconnecttheRhinewiththeBlacksea,viatheriversMainahdDanube,andagre......查看详细>>

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Port Construction(14.港口建设)

    Aharborisanyplacethatprovidesseagoingshipsorboatsofanykindwithameasureofprotectionfromthewindandwaves.Tofulfillthisrole,aharbormustbedeepenoughtoaccommodatethelargestshipsthatmayuseit,andhaveabottomthatwillholdthematanchor.Aportisaharborwithfacilitiesfortransferringpassengersandcargofromshoretoshipan......查看详细>>

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Railroads of the Future(13.未来铁路)

    Therailroadsofthenearfuturewillprobablynotinvolveanyspectacularlynewprinciplebutwillbedevelopmentsofthoseweusetoday.Therailadministrationshavebuilttheirentiresystemtoastereotypedmodel,withtwosteelrailsofaparticulartypeseparatedbya“gauge”ofabout1.43m,1.07m,1m,or1.68m.Sumsofmoneyequivalenttohundred......查看详细>>

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Railroad Transportation(12.铁路运输)

    Manbuiltrailroadslongbeforehebuiltsteamenginesandbeforehehadevenmasteredthebasictechnologyofengineeringwithironandothermetals.Theearliesttrainswereconstructedoftimberandwereinoperationnotlaterthanthefourteenthcentury.Theywerebuilttoovercometheseverelimitationsofotherformsoflandtransportation.Theprovi......查看详细>>

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Airport Construction(11.机场建设)

    WhenOrvillewright(1871—1948)andhisbrotherWilbur(1867—1912)mademansfirstpoweredflightonDecember17,1903,atkittyHawk,NorthCarolina,theyrevolutionizedtransportation.Intheorythenewaircraftmadepossiblethemovementofmenandgoodsfromanypointonearthtoanyotherwithouttheneedformassiveengineeringprojectsonroad......查看详细>>

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Modern Bridges(10.现代桥梁)

    Twonineteenth-centuryinventionsledtoarevolutioninbridgebuilding.ThesewerePartlandcementandmass-producedsteel.Cementisthevitalingredientofconcrete,andmassconcretecanbeusedtobuildpiers,abutments(banksupports),andarchesof“artificial”stonetoanyrequiredshape.Well-madeconcreteisextremelystrongincompres......查看详细>>

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History of Bridges(9.筑桥历史)

    TheearliestbridgeswereprobablylogsthrownacrossstreamsorthestoneslabclapperbridgessuchasthosestillsurvivinginDevon,England.Anothertypeofwatercrossingwasprovidedbybridgesformedbyboatsfixedtogether.TheGreekhistorianHerodotus(485—425BC)providedtheearliestdocumentaryevidenceofamorepermanentstructure.Thi......查看详细>>

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