中国森林生态系统能值与服务功能价值的关系

【关键词】:中国森林生态系统;;能值;;森林生态系统服务功能
【摘要】:本研究利用1901-2009年全球温度和降水数据以及全国1266块森林样地主要森林类型数据作为基础数据,应用能值理论和生态系统服务功能理论,建立了中国森林能值与服务功能价值之间的函数关系,并且研究了1990年和2009年中国森林服务功能价值密度的变化。结果表明:应用函数关系模拟1994年中国森林生态系统服务功能价值的结果与Costanza评估结果在空间分布上具有较高的一致性。2009年全国有林地栅格数目比1990年增长14.02%,其平均森林生态系统服务功能价值密度增加了54.46 USD/hm2。北京、上海、江苏、天津、河北平均森林生态系统服务功能价值密度分别降低了86.87%、85.45%、81.99%、46.48%和23.07%。河南、湖南、吉林、江西、黑龙江和浙江平均森林生态系统服务功能价值密度分别下降了71.35%、58.65%、52.70%、34.56%、23.36%和22.03%。广西、西藏、甘肃、内蒙古、四川、云南、宁夏森林破坏也比较明显,这些省份的平均森林生态系统服务功能价值密度下降了2.89%~22.36%。根据全国第四次和第七次森林清查报告显示,近年来我国森林面积持续增加。但研究结果显示很多省份的森林生态系统服务功能价值密度仍然降低,这说明森林生态系统仍然没有完全恢复。中国森林生态系统服务功能普遍低于全球森林生态系统服务功能值的平均水平,说明我国森林生态环境并不理想,人类活动对生态系统产生巨大的负面影响。
In this study, with the help of emergy value theory and ecosystem service value theory, we established the function relationship between forest emergy value and ecosystem service value in China using the global temperature and precipitation data during 1901-2009and 1266 sample forest data of major vegetation types in China. Results indicate that: there was a high consistency of the spatial distribution of the Chinese forest ecosystem service value in 1994 between the simulated results by the established function relationship and the evaluation results from Costanza. In particular, the raster number of forest areas in China increased by about 14.02% from 1990 to 2009, and the mean forest ecosystem service value density increased by about 54.46 USD/hm2. In addition, the mean forest ecosystem service value density for Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Tianjin, Hebei decreased by about 86.87%,85.45%, 81.99%, 46.48% and 23.07%, respectively, and the mean ecosystem service value density for Henan, Hunan, Jilin, Jiangxi, Heilongjiang and Zhejiang decreased by about71.35%, 58.65%, 52.70%, 34.56%, 23.36% and 22.03%, respectively. There was also a severe forest destruction in Guangxi, Tibet, Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Sichuan, Yunnan, and Ningxia,and the mean forest ecosystem service value density of those provinces decreased by about2.89%-22.36%. According to the fourth and seventh National forest survey reports, the forest areas have continually increased in recent years. However, the reports show that the forest ecosystem service value density in several provinces have decreased, and indicate that the forest ecosystem has not been fully recovered. Generally speaking, the forest ecosystem service value is lower than the global average level, suggesting that the forest eco-environment is not good enough in China, and human activities have a tremendous negative impact on the ecosystem.