网络大数据:现状与展望

【关键词】:大数据;;网络大数据;;网络空间感知;;大数据存储;;数据挖掘;;社会计算
【摘要】:网络大数据是指"人、机、物"三元世界在网络空间(Cyberspace)中交互、融合所产生并在互联网上可获得的大数据.网络大数据的规模和复杂度的增长超出了硬件能力增长的摩尔定律,给现有的IT架构以及机器处理和计算能力带来了极大挑战.同时,也为人们深度挖掘和充分利用网络大数据的大价值带来了巨大机遇.因此,迫切需要探讨大数据的科学问题,发现网络大数据的共性规律,研究网络大数据定性、定量分析的基础理论与基本方法.文中分析了网络大数据的复杂性、不确定性和涌现性,总结了网络空间感知与数据表示、网络大数据存储与管理体系、网络大数据挖掘和社会计算以及网络数据平台系统与应用等方面的主要问题与研究现状,并对大数据科学、数据计算需要的新模式与新范式、新型的IT基础架构和数据的安全与隐私等方面的发展趋势进行了展望.
Network big data refer to the massive data generated by interaction and fusion of the ternary human-machine-thing universe in the Cyberspace and available on the Internet.The increase of their scale and complexity exceeds that of the capacity of hardware characterized by the Moore law,which brings grand challenges to the architecture and the processing and computing capacity of the contemporary IT systems,meanwhile presents unprecedented opportunities on deeply mining and taking full advantage of the big value of network big data.Therefore,it is pressing to investigate the disciplinary issues and discover the common laws of network big data,and further study the fundamental theory and basic approach to qualitatively or quantitatively dealing with network big data.This paper analyzes the challenges caused by the complexity,uncertainty and emergence of network big data,and summarizes major issues and research status of the awareness,representation,storage,management,mining,and social computing of network big data,as well as network data platforms and applications.It also looks ahead to the development trends of big data science,new modes and paradigm of data computing,new IT infrastructures,and data security and privacy,etc.