量子信息技术纵览

【关键词】:量子信息技术;;量子密码;;量子通信;;量子计算;;量子模拟;;量子度量学;;量子信息物理基础
【摘要】:量子信息技术经过近三十年突飞猛进的发展,在理论和技术方面已经获得了举世瞩目的成就.本文主要对量子信息技术各个热点研究分支的发展进行了概括性的介绍,涉及到量子密码、量子通信、量子计算、量子模拟、量子度量学、量子信息物理基础等各个领域.此外,也讨论了原子、分子和光物理、固体物理的各个分支(超导约瑟夫森结系统、半导体量子点自旋系统、金刚石氮-空穴色心系统)、离子阱、核磁共振系统等各种物理体系在量子信息技术中的应用和发展.通过对量子信息技术的研究和积累,人们调控微观世界的能力获得了显著的提高.量子密码技术已经接近实用化,长程量子通信的原理性验证也不存在原则上的障碍.量子模拟技术快速发展,已经接近经典计算机可以模拟的极限.同时,量子度量学也获得了快速的发展.本综述不仅反映了国际量子信息技术发展的状况,而且也提炼了近年来中国量子信息科学技术在国际上取得的成就.这些成就表明,中国已经成为量子信息世界版图中一股不可或缺的力量.
After nearly three decades of rapid development,the quantum information technology in the theoretical and technical studies has gained remarkable achievements.This review gives a brief introduction to the development of various hot research branches of quantum information technology,including quantum cryptography,quantum communication,quantum computing,quantum simulation,quantum metrology,and fundamental theory of quantum information.In addition,this review also discusses various physical systems which have been well applied in the quantum information technology,such as atomic,molecular and optical physics,different branches in solid state physics(superconducting Josephson Junction system,semiconductor quantum dots,Nitrogen-vacancy color centers in diamond),trapped ions,and nuclear magnetic resonance system.With the investigation and accumulation of quantum information technology,the ability to control microscopic world has been significantly improved.Quantum cryptography has been close to the practical application and the long-distance quantum communication has overcome the practical obstacles in principle.Quantum simulation is close to the limit of the classical computer.Also,quantum metrology has gained rapid development.This review not only shows the situation of the international development of quantum information technology,but also highlights the achievements of China in recent years.These achievements demonstrate that China is an indispensable force in the worldwide quantum information community.