中国基础教育均衡发展实证研究报告

【关键词】:基础教育;;教育均衡发展;;教育均衡指数
【摘要】:基于教育发展的宏观数据和微观调查数据,从区域、城乡、学校和受教育群体四个方面对我国基础教育均衡状况进行了实证分析研究。一方面,使用教育发展的宏观数据构建教育均衡指数,运用两种指标体系测度了1995—2010年我国基础教育均衡发展程度。体系一的测算结果表明,我国基础教育的教育机会均衡指数、教育资源配置均衡指数、教育质量均衡指数、教育成就均衡指数和教育均衡总指数均呈现逐年均衡的发展趋势,尤其在基础教育机会均衡方面取得了很大的进步。体系二的测算结果表明,我国基础教育的城乡教育均衡指数、学校教育均衡指数、群体教育均衡指数和教育均衡总指数依然呈现趋于均衡的态势,但区域教育均衡指数的变化波动较大。另一方面,通过来自河南省、山东省、陕西省和甘肃省的微观调研数据也得出了相似的判断,表明我国基础教育逐步走向均衡,但城乡之间的生均经费差距较大,不同类别学校之间发展不够均衡,不同群体的入学方式存在差异。
Based on macro-data and microcosmic survey,an empirical analysis has been processed about the equilibrium development of basic education in China from the following four perspectives as regions,urban and rural areas,schools,and education groups.On the one hand,an educational equilibrium index has been constructed with the utilization of the macro-data,and two indicator systems have been used to measure the degree of equilibrium development of basic education during the period of 1995—2010 in China.The result from the first indicator system shows that there has been a continuous equilibrium of developmental progress of basic education in China concerning equilibrium index of the education opportunities,the distribution of educational resources,the educational quality,the educational attainment and index in general.More than ever,great strides have been made in terms of the equilibrium development of basic education in China.The result from the second indicator system shows that there has been a balanced trend of basic education in China concerning equilibrium index of basic education in urban and rural areas,school,group and index in general;but there is also a trend in fluctuation concerning equilibrium index of region.On the other hand,similar findings are also found out from microcosmic survey,conducted in Henan,Shandong,Shaanxi and Gansu provinces,which have shown that a trend toward an equilibrium development is coming into being in China's basic education.However,there is a big gap in terms of expenditure per student between urban and rural areas;an imbalanced development also exists among different types of schools,and many differences have been found in terms of the ways of the enrollment of the different student groups.