中国水产养殖水体净化技术的发展概况

【关键词】:水产养殖;;水体净化;;水处理机械;;回顾;;现状;;最新进展
【摘要】:养殖水体净化技术是现代水产养殖工程的组成部分之一,是以养殖水体为研究对象,利用可控的人工措施,采用物理、化学、生物等方法改善养殖水体环境,以解决水产品安全、鱼类疾病及资源环境等问题,提高水产养殖生产力。中国目前的养殖水体净化技术主要有:机械过滤、紫外线和臭氧杀菌、水体增氧、人工湿地和人工培育有益藻类或投放生物制剂等,常用的装备有:池塘清淤机、水质净化杀菌装置、过滤机、高效生物净化器、增氧装备和水质自动监控系统等,解决了养殖水体有机颗粒物过滤分离、生物净化、消毒杀菌和水质自动检测等养殖水体净化基本问题,形成了有一定特色的养殖水体净化系统模式。通过回顾中国养殖水体净化技术及常用水处理机械的发展过程、简要介绍了国内外养殖水体净化技术的现状和最新研究进展,为中国的水产养殖净化技术在高效、节能、集成化程度进一步发展方面提供基础理论依据,为养殖水体净化技术标准化体系的研究及新技术的适用性和经济性研究提供新的思路。
Aquaculture water purification technology is one part of modern aquaculture engineering.Taking water body as object of study,its aim is to solve the problems of aquatic products safety,fish diseases and resource environment,by using controllable artificial measures,and physical,chemical and biological methods to improve the aquaculture water environment.The current aquaculture water purification technology in China mainly includes physical filtration,ultraviolet & ozone disinfection,water aeration,artificial wetlands,artificial propagation of useful algae or application of biological agents and so on.The commonly used equipment includes pond dredger,water purification and sterilization device,filter,aerator,water quality automatic monitoring system and so on.By application of the abovementioned technology and equipment,the basic issues in aquaculture water purification,such as the separation of organic particles,purification,disinfection,and the auto-detection of water quality,have been solved,and a characteristic system model for aquaculture water purification has been established.In order to provide the basic theoretical basis for development of China aquaculture water purification technology in the high efficiency,energy-saving and the degree of integration,and in order to provide new ideas on the research of the standardization system of aquaculture water purification technology,and the applicability and economy of new technologies,this paper reviews the development course of aquaculture water purification technology in China,and introduces the status quo and the recent progress of aquaculture water purification technology at home and abroad.